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Husna Wali
Habban Ullah
Dr. Chanda Naseem
Iqra Rasheed
Maryam Asad Baig
Ayesha Amjad
Muneeb Abid
Asna Tauqeer
Ammar Ijaz


Nutritional status, Breast-fed, formula-fed, infants


Background: Nutritional support for infants is essential since it helps ensure they grow and develop normally in their first years of life. It is vital to understand the possible changes in the nutritional status of formula milk-fed newborns compared to breast.
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional status of formula milk-fed infants and breastfed infants in Mardan, Pakistan.
Methods: A cross-sectional study design was employed a sample of 100 infants, with 50 formula milk-fed infants and 50 breastfed infants at medical hospitals of district Mardan. Data was collected from 1 March 2023 to 30 May 2023 through a questionnaire completed by the mothers of the infants, which assessed demographic information, growth parameters (weight, length, and head circumference), and nutritional status (calcium, folate, iron, zinc, and vitamin B12 levels). Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data.
Results: The study findings showed that breastfed infants had a higher proportion in the older age range (4 to 6 months) .Slightly higher proportion of male infants in both groups. Higher literacy rates was observed among mothers of breastfed infants. Breastfed infants exhibited higher weights and lengths above certain thresholds compared to formula milk-fed infants. Head circumference measurements were generally comparable. In terms of nutritional status, breastfed infants had a higher percentage of normal levels for calcium, folate, iron, zinc, and vitamin B12 compared to formula milk-fed infants. However, formula milk-fed infants had a slightly higher proportion of infants with low calcium levels.
Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of breastfeeding in promoting optimal nutrition and healthy growth among the infants.


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