BEYOND BLOOD SUGAR CONTROL: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF DPP-4 INHIBITORS AND THEIR EXPANDING LANDSCAPE

Main Article Content

Parul Srivastava
Pranay Wal
Versha Chaturvedi
Ankita Wal
Ashish Srivastava

Keywords

Type 2 diabetes, DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1, GIP, insulin resistance, beta cell function, hypoglycemia, safety, long-term effects, immune function, COVID-19

Abstract

Type 2 diabetes, a prevalent chronic condition marked by insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function, presents a significant healthcare challenge. This review examines the potential of DPP-4 inhibitors, a novel class of medications, in managing this condition. DPP-4 inhibitors function by blocking the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) enzyme, leading to increased levels of the incretin hormones GLP-1 and GIP. These hormones stimulate insulin release and suppress glucagon production, ultimately lowering blood sugar. Their safety, tolerability, and low risk of hypoglycaemia make them an attractive treatment option. Currently, DPP-4 inhibitors are increasingly becoming first-line therapy, demonstrating efficacy in controlling blood sugar. However, long-term safety and their potential influence on immune function and susceptibility to COVID-19 require further investigation.


This review delves into the latest research on DPP-4 inhibitors, exploring their mechanisms of action, clinical effectiveness, and safety profile. Additionally, it highlights areas for future research, considering long-term effects, potential risks, and emerging questions related to immune function and COVID-19. By offering a comprehensive overview of DPP-4 inhibitors, this review aims to inform healthcare professionals and researchers about their potential in managing type 2 diabetes and pave the way for future advancements in diabetes care.

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