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Anosha Khan
Shehar Bano
Mauricio Alejandro Alvarado Mira
Tazeem Akhtar
Aqsa Azhar
Iesha Binte Shams
Areeja Nasir
Rabia Taj


Diabetes Care, Adherence Strategies, Nutritional Interventions, Type 2 Diabetes Management, Social Determinants of Health


Background: There has been significant increase in global prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes (T2D).  It necessitates a holistic approach to care. Therefore, this systematic review explores T2D management's multifaceted nature. Thus, emphasizes on three pivotal dimensions which include nutritional interventions, adherence strategies, and social determinants of health (SDOH). T2D's complexity is shaped by genetics, environment, and lifestyle factors. However, it requires a comprehensive approach beyond traditional pharmaceutical interventions.


Methods: Within the last decade a rigorous search strategy following PRISMA guidelines identified 29 relevant studies published. Therefore, studies were selected based on their focus on T2D management, nutritional interventions, adherence strategies, and SDOH. Thus, data were systematically assessed and extracted for quality and relevance.


Results: Nutritional interventions include dietary patterns. These are mediterranean diet, low-carbohydrate diets, and plant-based diets are included in it. They have shown promise in improving glycemic control. It also helps in reducing cardiovascular risk factors in T2D patients. Therefore, personalized nutrition tailored to individual genetics and metabolism is emerging approach. Furthermore, patient-centered adherence strategies, such as education and goal setting, empower individuals to actively participate in their care. So, healthcare provider communication and cultural competence play critical roles. Addressing SDOH, such as income disparities and food insecurity, is integral to comprehensive T2D management. To tackle these determinants community-based programs and policy changes are essential.


Conclusion: In Managing Type 2 Diabetes, a holistic approach beyond pharmaceutical interventions is required. Therefore, nutritional interventions, adherence strategies, and consideration of SDOH are pivotal components. Certainly, emerging research highlights personalized nutrition, patient-centered care, and interventions targeting food insecurity and health literacy. To enhance the well-being of individuals with T2D, this systematic review contributes to evolving knowledge, identifies gaps, and shapes future interventions.

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