Main Article Content

Kiramat Ullah
Muhammad Qasim Khan
Muhammad Suleman
Muhammad Javed Khan
Mohammad Ali Khan
Khateeb Shah


Respiratory distress, Clinical profile, Neonates


Background and Aim: Respiratory distress frequently leads to admissions in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. There is paucity of data regarding the clinical profile of neonates suffering from respiratory distress. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of respiratory distress among neonates.

Patients and Methods: This prospective study investigated 186 neonates diagnosed of respiratory distress presented to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Mardan Medical Complex, Mardan from January 2022 to December 2022. Patient’s details such as socioeconomic status, demographic details, comprehensive perinatal history, and clinical examination were recorded. Additionally, Mode of delivery, steroid coverage, and risk factors for sepsis were also recorded.

Results: Of the total 186, the incidence of premature neonates was 50.5% (n=94). About 82.9% (n=156) neonates were born through lower segment Caesarean section (LSCS). The key risk factors identified were Cesarean section delivery and maternal infection, accounting for 38.7% (n=72) of cases. Transient tachypnea, congenital pneumonia, and Late-onset sepsis was the most prevalent causes of respiratory distress found in 45.2% (n=84), 23.1% (n=43), and 10.8% (n=20) respectively. Respiratory support, including both invasive and non-invasive ventilation, was needed for 30.1% (n=56) of these infants. The mortality rate of infants was 1.1% (n=2) due to severe Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and delayed hospital referral.

Conclusion: The primary risk factors for respiratory distress include Cesarean section delivery and maternal infection. Significant maternal risk factors included primiparity, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia, multiple gestation, and not receiving antenatal steroids in cases of preterm labor. Timely referral and prompt respiratory support significantly contribute to improved outcomes.


Abstract 185 | pdf Downloads 85


1. Ahmed MK, Lakshmi CV, Reddy UN. A Study on Etiology and Clinical Pr ofile of Respiratory Distress among Neonates Received in NICU at a Tertiary Care Centre in Hyderabad. International Journal of Medical Research &cHealth Sciences. 2021;10(4):37-45.
2. Bajad M, Goyal S, Jain B. Clinical profile of neonates with respiratory distress. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics. 2016;3(3):1009-13.
3. Sonawane, Ravindra, Akshay Patil, and Sagar Sonawane. “Clinical profle of respiratory distress in newborn.” MVP Journal of Medical Science, Vol. 5, No. 2, 2019, pp. 151-55
4. Lakhkar, Bhavana, et al. “Study of respiratory distress in newborn.” International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2017, pp. 490-94.
5. Nasef, Nehad, Hend ME Rashed, and Hany Aly. “Practical aspects on the use of non-invasive respiratory support in preterm infants.” International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2020, pp. 21-27.
6. Adebami OJ, Joel-Medewase VI, Agelebe E, Ayeni TO, Kayode OV, Odeyemi OA, Oyedeji GA. Determinants of outcome in newborns with respiratory distress in Osogbo, Nigeria. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2017;5(4):1487-93.
7. Sabzehei M, Basiri B, Shokouhi M, Fayyazi A. Causes and Outcomes of Respiratory Distress in Neonates Hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Beâ sat Hospital in Hamadan, Iran. International Journal of Pediatrics. 2017;5(12):6253-60.
8. Palod PH, Lawate BB, Sonar MN, Bajaj SP. A study of clinical profile of neonates with respiratory distress and predictors of their survival admitted in neonatal intensive care unit of tertiary care hospital. Int J Contemp Pediatr 2017;4:2027-31.
9. Sauparna C, Nagaraj N, Berwal PK, Inani H, Kanungo M. A clinical study of prevalence, spectrum of respiratory distress and immediate outcome in neonates. Indian J Immunol Respir Med. 2016 Oct;1(4):80-3.
10. Adebami OJ, Joel-Medewase VI, Agelebe E, Ayeni TO, Kayode OV, Odeyemi OA et al. Determinants of outcome in newborns with respiratory distress in Osogbo, Nigeria. Int J Res Med Sci. 2017;5:1487-93.
11. Kisku A, Akhouri MR. Study on newborn admitted in nicu with respiratory distress. IOSR-JDMS. 2016;15(7):76-79.
12. Thakkar PA, Pansuriya HG, Bharani S, Taneja KK. Clinical Profile, Outcome And Risk Factors For Mortality Of Neonates Requiring Mechanical Ventilation At Tertiary Care Centre Of Central Gujarat, India. Journal Of Nepal Paediatric Society. 2021 Apr 24;41(1):29-34.
13. Abinaya G. Study of Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates admitted in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in a Tertiary Care Centre (Doctoral dissertation, Coimbatore Medical College, Coimbatore).
14. Rayeesa KK. Outcome of Neonates on Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Graduating from NICU, Tirunelveli Medical College, Tirunelveli (Doctoral dissertation, Tirunelveli Medical College, Tirunelveli).
15. Regmi S, Pathak S, Awasti PR, Bhattarai S, Poudel R. Outcome of neonates requiring mechanical ventilation in a tertiary hospital. Journal of Chitwan Medical College. 2018 Sep 30;8(3):24-30.
16. Santosh S, Kimau KK, Adarsha E. A clinical study of respiratory distress in newborn and its outcome. Indian J Neonatal Med Res. 2013;1(1):2-4.
17. Swarnkar K, Swarnkar M. Neonatal respiratory distress in early neonatal period and its outcome. Int J Biomed Adv Res. 2015;6(09):643-7.
18. Kisku A, Akhouri MR. Study on newborn admitted in nicu with respiratory distress. IOSR-JDMS. 2016;15(7):76-79.
19. Zaman S, Goheer L, Riaz H. Prevalence and aetiology of respiratory distress in newborns. Pak Armed Forces Med J. 2013;63(1):22-5.
20. Shah G, Yadav S, Thapa A, Shah L. Clinical Profile and Outcome of Neonates Admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) at a Tertiary Care Centre in Eastern Nepal. JNPS. 2013;33(3):177-81.
21. Shrestha S, Shah A, Prajapati R, Sharma Y. Profile of Neonatal Admission at Chitwan Medical College. JCMC. 2014 ;3(4):13-6.
22. Rakholia R, Rawat V, Mehar B, Singh G. Neonatal morbidity and mortality of sick newborns admitted in a teaching hospital of Uttarkhand. Chrismed J Health Research 2014;1(4):228-34.
23. Klemm RD, Merrill RD, Wu L, Shamim AA, Ali H, Labrique A, et al. Low-birthweight rates higher among Bangladeshi neonates measured during active birth surveillance compared to national survey data. Matern Child Nutr 2015 Oct;11(4):583–94.
24. Kanodia P, Yadav SK, Bhatta NK, Singh RR. Disease profile and outcome of newborn admitted to neonatology unit of BPKIHS. J Col Med Sci Nepal 2015; 11(3): 20-4.
25. Edwards, Martin O., Sarah J. Kotecha, and Sailesh Kotecha. “Respiratory distress of the term newborn infant.” Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2013, pp. 29-37.
26. Reuter, Suzanne, Chuanpit Moser, and Michelle Baack. “Respiratory distress in the newborn.” Pediatrics in Review, Vol. 35, No. 10, 2014, pp. 417-28.
27. Shinde R, Haridas K, Nagar P, Parakh H. A study of survival of very low birth weight neonates in a tertiary care hospital. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics. 2019 Mar;6(2):857-62.

Most read articles by the same author(s)