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Hafiza Aasia Malik
Shehar yar Saleem
Muhammad Hamza
Saad Naseer
Muhammad Usman
Muhammad Bilawal Haseeb


Pakistan, Staphylococcus Aureus, Antibiogram, Prevalence, AMR


Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals, and it is among the top 5 causes of food-borne illnesses globally. Very limited work has been reported about the prevalence of S. aureus and its antibiogram in the poultry industry of Pakistan. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of S. aureus in the healthy chicken sold in major cities of Pakistan and to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. aureus. The sample size was 372 and they were collected from major cities of Pakistan during 2020-2021. The overall prevalence of S. aureus was 41%. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of 45 isolates of S. aureus was carried out. For antibiotic susceptibility testing, the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method was used and for quality control, ATCC (25922, 25923) strains were turned into account, and results were analysed according to CLSI-2017 in WHONET software. Selected S. aureus isolates were found to be highly resistant against ceftazidime (98%), nalidixic acid (91%), erythromycin (87%), clarithromycin (84%), and tetracycline (82%) respectively. All samples showed high sensitivity against ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanate, amikacin, linezolid, minocycline, and rifampin with a value ranging from 100-96%. Most of the isolates were not resistant to methicillin, only 4% were MRSA and 9% showed intermediate value. Continual surveillance of antibiotic susceptibilities is eminent for the isolates obtained from healthy as well as diseased birds of poultry in establishing the baseline resistance patterns along with devising suitable AMR containment measures for the future.

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