Main Article Content

Nawab Ali
Maham Adeeb
Dr. Tasneem Murad
Ayesha Afzal
Dr. Farhan Fateh Jang
Dr. Naeem Amjad
Muhammad Umer Farooq Mujahid


Traumatic, neurological, anxiety, Traumatic Brain Injury


Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant public health concern, affecting millions of individuals worldwide each year. Recent research has suggested that TBI may be associated with an increased risk of subsequent neurological and psychiatric diseases, including dementia, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. To assess the strength of this association, we conducted a meta-analysis of 43 studies that examined the link between TBI and subsequent neurological and psychiatric disease. Our results demonstrate a significant association between TBI and increased risk of dementia, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder, with effect sizes ranging from moderate to large. Subgroup analyses further suggest that the association may be stronger in individuals with more severe TBI, older age, and longer time since injury. These findings highlight the importance of preventing and treating TBI, as well as providing appropriate follow-up care to individuals who have sustained a TBI.

Abstract 255 | pdf Downloads 120


Roozenbeek B, Maas AIR, Menon DK. Changing patterns in the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. Nat Rev Neurol. 2013 Dec;9(12):231-6. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2013.22. Epub 2013 Apr 2. PMID: 23545708.
McMahon P, Hricik A, Yue JK, Puccio AM, Inoue T, Lingsma HF, Beers SR, Gordon W, Valadka A, Manley GT, Okonkwo DO; TRACK-TBI Investigators. Symptomatology and functional outcome in mild traumatic brain injury: results from the prospective TRACK-TBI study. J Neurotrauma. 2014 Oct 15;31(20):1808-14. doi: 10.1089/neu.2014.3443. PMID: 24915506; PMCID: PMC4196091.
Li Y, Liang R, Li Y, Li Y, Li X, Liu H, Wang Y, Cheng Y. Depression as a mediator of quality of life and resilience in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Behav. 2018;8(3):e00908. doi:10.1002/brb3.908
Lee YK, Hou SW, Lee CC, Hsu CY, Huang YS, Su YC. Increased risk of dementia in patients with mild traumatic brain injury: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2013 Jul;38(4):222-8. doi: 10.1503/jpn.120090. PMID: 23364589; PMCID: PMC3680194.
Karr JE, Areshenkoff CN, Garcia-Barrera MA. The Neuropsychological Outcomes of Concussion: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses on the Cognitive Sequelae of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Neuropsychology. 2014;28(3):321-336. doi:10.1037/neu0000037
Jette N, Sander AM, Sharan S, et al. Traumatic Brain Injury in the United States: Epidemiology and Rehabilitation. Curr Phys Med Rehabil Rep (2016) 4: 33. doi: 10.1007/s40141-016-0113-0
Gardner RC, Burke JF, Nettiksimmons J, Kaup A, Barnes DE, Yaffe K. Dementia Risk After Traumatic Brain Injury vs Nonbrain Trauma: The Role of Age and Severity. JAMA Neurol. 2014;71(12):1490–1497. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2014.2668
Coronado VG, Haileyesus T, Cheng TA, Bell JM, Haarbauer-Krupa JK, Lionbarger MR, Flores-Herrera J, McGuire LC, Gilchrist J. Trends in Sports- and Recreation-Related Traumatic Brain Injuries Treated in US Emergency Departments: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) 2001-2012. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015 Nov-Dec;30(6):185-97. doi: 10.1097/HTR.0000000000000123. PMID: 25844537.
Perry DC, Sturm VE, Peterson MJ, Pieper CF, Bullock T, Boeve BF, Miller BL, Guskiewicz KM, Berger MS, Kramer JH, Welsh-Bohmer KA. Association of traumatic brain injury with subsequent neurological and psychiatric disease: a meta-analysis. J Neurosurg. 2016 Feb;124(2):511-26. doi: 10.3171/2015.2.JNS14503. Epub 2015 Aug 28. PMID: 26315003; PMCID: PMC4751029.
Jordan BD, Relkin NR, Ravdin LD, Jacobs AR, Bennett A, Gandy S. Apolipoprotein E epsilon4 associated with chronic traumatic brain injury in boxing. JAMA. 1997;278:136–140.
Jorge RE, Robinson RG, Starkstein SE, Arndt SV. Depression and anxiety following traumatic brain injury. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1993;5:369–374
Hibbard MR, Uysal S, Kepler K, Bogdany J, Silver J. Axis I psychopathology in individuals with traumatic brain injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 1998;13:24–39.

Most read articles by the same author(s)