Assessment of Cytotoxicity activity of novel zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized through coffee bean and xylitol formulation

Main Article Content

Khushali K Shah
Nabeel Ahmed
Dhanraj Ganapathy

Keywords

Zinc oxide nanoparticles, Coffee beans, Xylitol, Cytotoxicity

Abstract

Introduction: ZnO nanoparticles have been proven to trigger apoptosis in cancer cells, making them a prospective cancer therapy candidate. Unfortunately, traditional techniques of producing ZnO NPs involve incorporating toxic chemicals and solvents, which can be harmful to the environment and human health. As a result, environmentally friendly and cost-effective technologies for manufacturing ZnO NPs are required.
Aim: The aim of this study was to synthesize a novel zinc oxide nanoparticle from a formulation of coffee beans and xylitol and assess its cytotoxic activity.
Materials and Method: A formulation of coffee beans extract and xylitol was prepared and zinc oxide nanoparticles were synthesized from the same. The characterisation of these zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out. The cytotoxic activity of the same was analyzed using a brine shrimp analysis. A total of 2g of iodine free salt was weighed and dissolved in 200 mL of distilled water. ELISA plates were taken and filled with 10-12 mL of saline water. To that 10 nauplii were slowly added to each well (20μL,40 μL,60 μL,80 μL,100 μL). The nanoparticles were then added according to different concentration levels. After 24 hours, the ELISA plates were observed and noted for a total number of live nauplii present and calculated.
Result: With the present study it can be deduced that the cytotoxic activity of the produced ZnO NPs against brine shrimp larvae was substantial, with a Minimum inhibitory concentration value of 30 g/mL. The dose-response curve revealed a linear association between ZnO NP concentration and brine shrimp larvae mortality rate, suggesting a dose-dependent cytotoxic impact
Discussion: The action potential of ZnO NP could be majorly attributed to the production of ROS (i.e., OH• (hydroxyl radical) and O2−2 (peroxide)), which induces oxidative stress, cell membrane disruption, and DNA damage. Another way by which ZnO NPs might cause cytotoxicity in cancer cells is the activation of apoptosis. Apoptosis is a type of planned cell death that is carefully controlled by a complex network of signaling channels.It is distinguished by morphological and biochemical alterations such as chromatin condensation, DNA breakage, and caspase activation (enzymes that cleave particular proteins to cause cell death)
Conclusion: Therefore based on our results the lethal effects of ZnO NPs synthesis utilizing a coffee bean and xylitol formulation on cancer cells can be linked to the production of ROS and the triggering of apoptosis.

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