Association Between RETN Gene Polymorphism and Serum Resistin Levels in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Patients

Main Article Content

Raya Zaid Ali
Ibtesam Badday Hassan
Ali Hafedh Abbas
Yahya Dreaim Saihood

Keywords

T1DM, T2DM, RETN gene 3ʹUTR, Gene polymorphism, Resistin

Abstract

Resistin is a cysteine-rich polypeptide, which is encoded by the RETN gene on chromosome 19p13. It has been established that human adipocytes, pancreatic cells, muscle, and mononuclear cells all express this 108 amino acid polypeptide. Up to 70% of the variability in serum resistin in Caucasians can be attributed to hereditary causes. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate the association between RETN gene polymorphism and serum resistin levels in type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. Frequencies of the polymorphism were determined in 51 type 1 diabetes, 52 type 2 diabetes patients, and 50 control group using (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and conventional polymerase chain reaction. The AA genotype has differed significantly between patients and the control group while genotypes, AC and CC, have not differed significantly between patients and the controls in the type 1 diabetes group. The (AA) was found in 100% of the type 1 diabetes patients and 80% of the control group (Pc=2.7 x 10-4). The AA, AC, and CC genotypes have not differed significantly in type 2 diabetes. A positive correlation was detected between the AA genotype and serum resistin levels in the type 1 diabetes group compared to type 2 diabetes and the control groups, but there was a negative correlation between AC, CC genotypes and them. Also, there was a negative correlation between the AA, AC, and CC genotypes and serum resistin levels in the type 2 diabetes group compared to the control group. Conclusion: The AA genotype of RETN gene 3ʹUTR polymorphism rs115073262 was found to be significantly associated with type 1 diabetes incidences. The findings suggest that the AA genotype and A allele in this gene increase the risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The AA genotype of polymorphism associated with higher serum resistin levels in type 1 diabetes patients samples.

Abstract 164 | pdf Downloads 157

References

1. Poznyak, A.; Grechko, A.V.; Poggio, P.; Myasoedova, V.A.; Alfieri, V. and Orekhov, A. N. (2020). The Diabetes Mellitus–Atherosclerosis Connection: The Role of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Chronic Inflammation. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 1835 (21): 1-13.
2. Marasco, M. R. and Linnemann, A. K. (2018). Beta-Cell Autophagy in Diabetes. Journal of Pathogenesis Endocrinology, 159 (5): 2127–2141.
3. Hussain, M.K.; Salman, H.F. and Mohammed, H.J. (2020). The Association of Resistin Levels with Resistance to Insulin in Iraqi Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients Thi-Qar Medical Journal, 20 (2): 34-40.
4. Indrahadi, D.; Wardana, A. and Pierewan, A. C. (2021). The prevalence of diabetes mellitus and relationship with socioeconomic status in the Indonesian population. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia, 17 (3): 103-112.
5. Inshaw, J.R.J., Sidore, C.; Cucca, F.; Stefana, M. I.; Crouch, D. J. M.; McCarthy, M.; Mahajan, A. and Todd, J. A. (2021). Analysis of overlapping genetic association in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia J, 64: 1342–1347.
6. Mori, H.; Takahashi, H.; Mine, K.; Higashimoto, K.; Inoue, K.; Kojima, M.; Kuroki, S.; Eguchi, T.; Ono, Y. and Inuzuka, S. (2021). TYK2 Promoter Variant Is Associated with Impaired Insulin Secretion and Lower Insulin Resistance in Japanese Type 2 Diabetes Patients. Genes J, 12 (400): 1-9.
7. Kaur, S.; Mirza, A.H.; Overgaard, A.J.; Pociot, F. and Størling, J.A (2021). Dual Systems Genetics Approach Identifies Common Genes, Networks,
and Pathways for Type 1 and 2 Diabetes in Human Islets. Front. Genet J., 12 (630109): 1-7.
8. Su, K.; Li, Y.; Zhang, D.; Yuan, J.; Zhang, C.; Liu, Y.; Song, L.; Lin, Q.; Li, M. and Dong, J. (2019). Relation of Circulating Resistin to Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Front Physiol, 10 (1399): 1-10.
9. de Luis, D.; Aller, R.; Izaola, O. and Primo, D. (2021). Role of the rs10401670 variant in the resistin gene on the metabolic response after weight loss secondary to a high‐fat hypocaloric diet with a Mediterranean pattern. J Hum Nutr Diet.1–9.
10. Qi, B.X.; Yan, M. and Sun, Y.D. (2017). Analysis on Correlation between Resistin—420C/G Polymorphism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Macroangiopathy in Han Population of Northeast China. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 5: 17-23.
11. Bilgetekin, İ.; Gönderen, K.; Üstünsoy, S. and Yıldız, M. (2018). Serum Resistin Levels in Prediabetic Individuals. Bakırköy Tıp Dergisi.1-8.
12. Dany, F.; Nikmah, U. A.; Rinendyaputri, R.; Ernawati, F.; Kristanti, D.; and Retiaty, F. (2022). RETN Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Profile on Triglyceride-Glucose Index as Insulin Resistance Proxy Among Cohort Population of Non-Communicable Diseases in Bogor. Jurnal Profesi Medika : Jurnal Kedokteran Dan Kesehatan, 16 (1): 1-8.
13. Musialik, K.; Miller-Kasprzak, E.; Walczak, M.; Markuszewski, L. and Bogda ´nski, P. (2022). The Association between Serum Resistin Level, Resistin (−420C/G) Single Nucleotide Variant, and Markers of Endothelial Dysfunction, including Salt Taste Preference in Hypertensive Patients. Nutrients, 14 (1789): 1-15.
14. Al-Hilali, H.A. and Abduljaleel, A.K. (2015). Therole of TNF and Resistin Gene +299 (G,A) Polymorphism in the Development of Insulin Resistance in non-obese Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Iraqi Patients. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol .App. Sci, 4 (10): 475-486.
15. Asl, M.J.; Zakerkish, M.; Ghanbari, M.F.; Ghaffari, M.A. and Rezazadeh, M. (2019). Association of Resistin Gene Polymorphism with Type 2 Diabetes in Khuzestan Province. Gene Cell Tissue., 6 (4): 98034-98040.
16. Utami, R.F.; Hastuti, P. and Sadewa, A.H. (2019). RETN rs3745368 polymorphism and resistin level in Javanese ethnic Indonesian obese: a case-control study. Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium, 8 (1): 41-49.
17. Fu, Y.; Yu, Y.; Wu, Y.; You, Y.; Zhang, Y. and Kou, C (2017). Association between Two Resistin Gene Polymorphisms and Metabolic Syndrome in Jilin, Northeast China: A Case-Control Study. Hindawi, 1638769: 1-7.
18. Meeks, K.A.C.; Doumatey, A.P.; Bentley, A.R.; Gouveia, M.H.; Chen, G.; Zhou, J.; Lei, L.; Adeyemo, A.A. and Rotimi, C.N. (2020). Genetics of Circulating Resistin Level, a Biomarker for Cardiovascular Diseases, Is Informed by Mendelian Randomization and the Unique Characteristics of African Genomes. Circ Genom Precis Med., 13 (002920): 1-16.
19. Hastuti, P.; Tasmini, T.; Utami, R.F.; Riwa, M.R.K.; Steven, S. and Sadewa, A.H. (2019). Variation of Resistin Gene Is Correlated with Insulin Resistance in Obese People of Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci., 7 (12): 1891-1895.
20. Fawzy, F.; Khalil, O.; Salem, H. and Fawzy, M. (2016). Resistin gene polymorphism in offspring of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Endocrine Abstracts, 41: 82-88.