Evaluation of antibacterial potential of Pithecellobium dulce against Streptococcus mutans

Main Article Content

Sushma P.G
Adimulapu Hima Sandeep
Saritha Bhandari
Ashwini Anil Pokle

Keywords

Pithecellobium, antimicrobial, streptococcus mutans, minimum inhibitory concentration, laboratory research

Abstract

Introduction: Pithecellobium dulce is used as traditional medicine. It is being utilized as an antibacterial agent against various oral diseases. Streptococcus Mutans is the major causative bacteria for dental caries. This study aims to evaluate the antibacterial potential of Pithecellobium Dulce on Streptococcus Mutans.
Aim: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Pithecellobium Dulce against Streptococcus Mutans.
Methodology: The minimum inhibitory concentration of Streptococcus mutans was evaluated by the microdilution method utilizing spectrophotometer. The Pithecellobium dulce extract was tested with 25μl, 50 μl, 100 μl concentration, standard and positive control at different time intervals 1hr, 2hr, 3hr, and 4 hr. The minimum bactericidal concentration was evaluated by the agar plate diffusion method at 25μl, 50 μl and 100 μl concentrations and no colonies were counted.
Results: The growth of Streptococcus Mutans bacteria was inhibited and at each concentration (25μl, 50 μl and 100 μl) of the extracts showed significant inhibition in comparison to the positive control. The minimum bactericidal concentration was tested and at 100 μl concentration minimum bacterial count was obtained.
Conclusion: The findings suggest that Pithecellobium dulce extract has potential to be used as an alternative to antimicrobial agent against Streptococcus mutans.
Clinical significance: Antibiotics have been known to cause side effects such as premature death, antibiotic resistance, weakened immune system, and allergy. Hence, there is a need to develop new antibiotics from natural sources

Abstract 96 | PDF Downloads 109

References

1. Franzolin MR, dos Santos Courrol D, de Oliveira Silva FR, Courrol LC. Antimicrobial Activity of Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Prepared by Photoreduction Process with Leaves and Fruit Extracts of Plinia cauliflora and Punica granatum [Internet]. Vol. 27, Molecules. 2022. p. 6860. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27206860
2. Jalique SM. ID2010 Cytotoxicity of aqueous and ethanolic bark extracts of Pithecellobium dulce against human carcinoma cells [Internet]. Vol. 4, Biomedical Research and Therapy. 2017. p. 44. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.15419/bmrat.v4is.253
3. Sharma S, Mehta BK. Screening for the protective efficacy of two different extracts of Pithecellobium dulce in CCl4 and Isoniazid induced hepatic injury in wistar rats [Internet]. Vol. 11, IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2016. p. 36–41. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.9790/3008-1105013641
4. Kumar R, Usmani S, Singh B, Prakash O, Verma P, Wahab S, et al. A comprehensive review on phytopharmacological perspectives of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth [Internet]. Vol. 11, Annals of Phytomedicine: An International Journal. 2022. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.54085/ap.2022.11.1.11
5. Raghunath D. Emerging antibiotic resistance in bacteria with special reference to India. J Biosci. 2008 Nov;33(4):593–603.
6. Sathish T, Karthick S. Wear behaviour analysis on aluminium alloy 7050 with reinforced SiC through taguchi approach. Journal of Materials Research and Technology. 2020 May 1;9(3):3481–7.
7. Krishna RN, Nivesh Krishna R, Yuvaraj Babu K. Estimation of stature from physiognomic facial length and morphological facial length [Internet]. Vol. 9, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2016. p. 2071. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360x.2016.00423.6
8. Sriram N, Thenmozhi, Yuvaraj S. Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Brain: A questionnaire based study. J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2015;8(7):867.
9. Subashri A, Thenmozhi MS. Occipital Emissary Foramina in Human Adult Skull and Their Clinical Implications [Internet]. Vol. 9, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2016. p. 716. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360x.2016.00135.9
10. Mootha A, Malaiappan S, Jayakumar ND, Varghese SS, Toby Thomas J. The Effect of Periodontitis on Expression of Interleukin-21: A Systematic Review. Int J Inflam. 2016 Feb 22;2016:3507503.
11. Marofi F, Motavalli R, Safonov VA, Thangavelu L, Yumashev AV, Alexander M, et al. CAR T cells in solid tumors: challenges and opportunities. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 Jan 25;12(1):81.
12. Mohanavel V, Ashraff Ali KS, Prasath S, Sathish T, Ravichandran M. Microstructural and tribological characteristics of AA6351/Si3N4 composites manufactured by stir casting. Journal of Materials Research and Technology. 2020 Nov 1;9(6):14662–72.
13. Vigneshwaran S, Sundarakannan R, John KM, Joel Johnson RD, Prasath KA, Ajith S, et al. Recent advancement in the natural fiber polymer composites: A comprehensive review. J Clean Prod. 2020 Dec 20;277:124109.
14. Suresh P, Marimuthu K, Ranganathan S, Rajmohan T. Optimization of machining parameters in turning of Al-SiC-Gr hybrid metal matrix composites using grey-fuzzy algorithm. Trans Nonferrous Met Soc China. 2014 Sep 1;24(9):2805–14.
15. Robert R, Justin Raj C, Krishnan S, Jerome Das S. Growth, theoretical and optical studies on potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) single crystals by modified Sankaranarayanan–Ramasamy (mSR) method. Physica B Condens Matter. 2010 Jan 1;405(1):20–4.
16. Govindarajan M, Rajeswary M. Repellent properties of Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) [Internet]. Vol. 1, Journal of Medicinal Herbs and Ethnomedicine. 2015. p. 1. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/jmhe.2015.08.018
17. Saeed Kotb S, Ayoub IM, El-Moghazy SA, Singab ANB. Phytochemical analysis of (Roxb) Benth Bark UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and evaluation of its biological activity. Nat Prod Res. 2022 Nov 1;1–6.
18. Bhat MA, Malik RA, Prakash P, Lone AM. Preparation and evaluation of antibacterial potential of Pithecellobium dulce root extract against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Microb Pathog. 2018 Mar;116:49–53.
19. Tsujii T, Kawada‐Matsuo M, Migita H, Ohta K, Oogai Y, Yamasaki Y, et al. Antibacterial activity of phellodendron bark againstStreptococcus mutans [Internet]. Vol. 64, Microbiology and Immunology. 2020. p. 424–34. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12787
20. Neelakantan P, Grotra D, Sharma S. Retreatability of 2 mineral trioxide aggregate-based root canal sealers: a cone-beam computed tomography analysis. J Endod. 2013 Jul;39(7):893–6.
21. Aldhuwayhi S, Mallineni SK, Sakhamuri S, Thakare AA, Mallineni S, Sajja R, et al. Covid-19 Knowledge and Perceptions Among Dental Specialists: A Cross-Sectional Online Questionnaire Survey. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021 Jul 7;14:2851–61.
22. Sheriff KAH, Ahmed Hilal Sheriff K, Santhanam A. Knowledge and Awareness towards Oral Biopsy among Students of Saveetha Dental College [Internet]. Vol. 11, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018. p. 543. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360x.2018.00101.4
23. Markov A, Thangavelu L, Aravindhan S, Zekiy AO, Jarahian M, Chartrand MS, et al. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells as a valuable source for the treatment of immune-mediated disorders. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2021 Mar 18;12(1):192.
24. Jayaraj G, Ramani P, Herald J. Sherlin, Premkumar P, Anuja N. Inter-observer agreement in grading oral epithelial dysplasia – A systematic review [Internet]. Vol. 27, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology. 2015. p. 112–6. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajoms.2014.01.006
25. Paramasivam A, Priyadharsini JV, Raghunandhakumar S, Elumalai P. A novel COVID-19 and its effects on cardiovascular disease. Hypertens Res. 2020 Jul;43(7):729–30.
26. Li Z, Veeraraghavan VP, Mohan SK, Bolla SR, Lakshmanan H, Kumaran S, et al. Apoptotic induction and anti-metastatic activity of eugenol encapsulated chitosan nanopolymer on rat glioma C6 cells via alleviating the MMP signaling pathway [Internet]. Vol. 203, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2020. p. 111773. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111773
27. Gan H, Zhang Y, Zhou Q, Zheng L, Xie X, Veeraraghavan VP, et al. Zingerone induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and prevents 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in experimental rats. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2019 Oct;33(10):e22387.
28. Dua K, Wadhwa R, Singhvi G, Rapalli V, Shukla SD, Shastri MD, et al. The potential of siRNA based drug delivery in respiratory disorders: Recent advances and progress. Drug Dev Res. 2019 Sep;80(6):714–30.
29. Mohan M, Jagannathan N. Oral field cancerization: an update on current concepts. Oncol Rev. 2014 Mar 17;8(1):244.

Most read articles by the same author(s)